History of the Old City of Lod

Prehistoric Periods
6,000-3,500 BCE
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The first inhabitants of Lod reached the area about 8,000 years ago, during the Neolithic Period. Due to the important archaeological discoveries found in the city, the “Lodian Culture” is well known.

Bronze and Iron Ages
3,500-586 BCE
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Early Bronze Age discoveries found in archaeological excavations conducted in Lod include typical Egyptian pottery, testifying to connections between Lod and Egypt.

Persian and Hellenistic Periods
586-37 BCE
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Lod became an important Jewish center during the Persian period. During the Hellenistic period, which partially corresponds to the Hasmonean period, the Seleucid King Demetrius I, who ruled between 161-150 BCE, suggested moving Lod from the control of Samaria to the Judea district due to its Jewish majority.

The Roman and Byzantine Periods
37 BCE-640 CE
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The crowning glory of findings from the Roman Period is the most impressive mosaic floor ever found in Israel and one of the most impressive worldwide

Early Islamic period and the Crusader period
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The Moslem rulers designated Lod as the civil capital of "Jund Palestine" (The Palestinian district).

The Mamluk Period
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During the 13th century the Mamluks captured Lod. They constructed the El-Omari Mosque and the Jindas Bridge, one of the most Impressive ancient bridges in Israel. 

The Ottoman period
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During the Ottoman period Lod became a central town in the Ayalon stream area, and an important center for the olive and oil industry.

The British Mandate
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During the Mandate Period, Lod was chosen as the location for the central train station between Cairo in the South, and Damascus in the north, as well as the International air terminal, named Lod Airport,

Early Islamic period and the Crusader period

St. George's Church Map Lod

During the 7th century, the country was occupied by the Moslems. The Moslem rulers designated Lod as the civil capital of “Jund Palestine” (The Palestinian district). Only 80 years later they founded the neighboring city of Ramla, which was built to replace Lod as capital.

Drawing of the St. George’s Church in 1714, drawing by Cornelius de Bruyn